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Harm/Etiology Article
Appraisal Guide

Questions to Ask Yourself

Are the results valid?

1. Except for the exposure under study, were the compared groups similar to each other?

blue arrowRCT, cohort , case-control?
blue arrowOther known prognosis factors similar or adjusted for?


2. Were the outcomes and exposures measured in the same way in the compared groups?

blue arrowRecall bias? Interviewer bias?
blue arrowExposure opportunity similar?

5. Is there a dose-response relationship ?

blue arrowRisk of outcome increases with quantity or duration of exposure?


What are the results?

1. How strong is the association between exposure and outcome?

blue arrowRR's or OR's?

2. How precise is the estimate of risk?

blue arrowConfidence intervals?


3.Did the study have a sufficiently large sample size?

Vanderbilt- Power and Sample Size Calculator

Will the results help me in patient care?

1. Can the results be applied to my patients?

red ball imagePatients similar for demographics, severity, co-morbidity and other prognostic factors?
red ball imageAre treatments and exposures similar?

2. What is the magnitude of the risk?

red ball imageAbsolute risk increase (and its reciprocal)?


3. Should I attempt to stop the exposure?

red ball imageStrength of evidence?
red ball imageMagnitude of risk?
red ball imageAdverse effects of reducing exposure?